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Liberalism: In the Classical Tradition

Organizers said they represent "the white European man" and want to spread the idea of "ethnic self-defense" in the face of immigration and Hungary's growing Roma community.

AP — Chaos that erupted at the University of California, Berkeley, to oppose right-wing provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos was shocking not just for the images of protesters setting fires, smashing windows and hurling explosives at police, but because of where it took place. AP — A prominent alt-right activist visiting the University of Colorado railed against feminists and liberals and made jokes about Muslims, overweight people and others as about people demonstrated against him.

Musician loses work after anti-immigrant post on Facebook June 20, Student, adults decry politics of Alabama government class January 26, Activist denounces liberals at university, gets protests January 26, AP's Member Network:. From our partner: The Conversation. Connect with the definitive source for global and local news. The Associated Press. All rights reserved. He also asserted, again in contravention of established political practice, that a nation could have an organic "national will" and a capacity for self-determination which would allow states to exist without being chained to pre-existing social orders , such as aristocracy.

Another major contributing group to the ideas of Liberalism are those associated with the Scottish Enlightenment , especially David Hume and Adam Smith. Possibly Hume 's most important contribution to Liberalism was his assertion that the fundamental rules of human behavior would eventually overwhelm any attempts to restrict or regulate them which also influenced Immanuel Kant 's formulation of his categorical imperative theory. Adam Smith expounded on the theory that individuals could structure both moral and economic life without direction from the state , and that nations would be strongest when their citizens were free to follow their own initiative "The study of his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily , leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society ".

In his influential "The Wealth of Nations" of , he argued that the market , under certain conditions, would naturally regulate itself and would produce more than the heavily restricted markets that were the norm at the time, and he agreed with Hume that capital , not gold, is the wealth of a nation.

Much of the intellectual basis for the American Revolution - was framed by Thomas Paine - , Thomas Jefferson - and John Adams - who encouraged revolt in the name of "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" echoing Locke , and in favor of democratic government and individual liberty.

The Tragedy of Liberalism

In particular, Paine's widely-read pamphlet "Common Sense" and his "The Rights of Man" were highly influential in this process. The goal was to ensure liberty by preventing the concentration of power in the hands of any one man. The French Revolution - was even more drastic and less compromising, although in its first few years the revolution was very much guided by liberal ideas. However, the transition from revolt to stability was to prove more difficult than the similar American transition, and later, under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre - and the Jacobins , power was greatly centralized and most aspects of due process were dispensed with, resulting in the Reign of Terror.

Nevertheless, the French Revolution would go further than the American Revolution in establishing liberal ideals with such policies as universal male suffrage , national citizenship and a far reaching "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen".

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John Stuart Mill popularized and expanded liberal ideas in the midth Century, grounding them in the instrumental and the pragmatic , particularly in his "On Liberty" of and other works. He also propounded a utilitarian justification of Liberalism, in which the moral worth of the economic system is determined solely by its contribution to overall utility in maximizing happiness or pleasure among all people. Gradually, the idea of liberal democracy in its typical form of multiparty political pluralism gathered strength and influence over much of the western world , although it should be noted that, for liberals, democracy is not an end in itself , but an essential means to securing liberty, individuality and diversity.

Towards the end of the 19th Century , though, splits were developing within Liberalism between those who accepted some government intervention in the economy, and those who became increasingly anti-government , in some cases adopting varieties of Anarchism.

What Was Liberalism? #1 Ideology & Violence - Philosophy Tube

In the 20th Century, in the face of the growing relative inequality of wealth , a theory of Modern Liberalism or New Liberalism or Social Liberalism was developed to describe how a government could intervene in the economy to protect liberty while still avoiding Socialism.

Roosevelt - and John Kenneth Galbraith - can be singled out as instrumental in this respect.

The Tragedy of Liberalism | The End of the End of History? | Issues | The Hedgehog Review

Other liberals, including Friedrich Hayek - , Milton Friedman - , and Ludwig von Mises - , argued that phenomena such as the Great Depression of the 's and the rise of Totalitarian dictatorships were not a result of "laissez-faire" Capitalism at all, but a result of too much government intervention and regulation on the market. There are two major currents of thought within Liberalism, Classical Liberalism and Social Liberalism :.

As with many political philosophies, there are several forms and variations of Liberalism, including the following:. A huge subject broken down into manageable chunks.

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