UnWanted Selection: Kimjens Choice: Book 1


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The paper discusses different LPP collector refurbishment strategies and presents the recent status on collector refurbishment techniques. Contamination concerns at the intermediate focus of an extreme ultraviolet light source. David N. The emission of species that can chemically or physically alter the surface of post intermediate-focus optics will increase the cost of ownership of such an EUV lithography tool past the point of cost effectiveness.

The effects of increasing buffer gas, increasing pressure, and chosen buffer gas species will be presented. Furthermore the presence of a secondary plasma, generated by EUV light will be analyzed and exposed as a potential issue in the strive for a contaminant free intermediate focus. Mask I. Dressed-photon nanopolishing for extreme ultraviolet mask substrate defect mitigation. Although the quality of extreme ultraviolet EUV mask substrates has improved by continuous refinement of the polishing processes, the yield of defect-free blanks is still very low.

When illuminated with light of a suitable wavelength, such coupled states are generated on a nanometrically rough material surface and impart sufficient energy to an etchant gas to enable its dissociation and etching in the rough regions only. EUV mask defect analysis from mask to wafer printing.

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EUV mask defect control is the one of the concerns for introducing EUVL to device manufacturing, for current EUV mask defect level is too high to accept for device volume production. EUV mask defects come from mask blank, mask process and mask handling. To have reduced mask defect level, quality control of blank mask, optimization of EUV mask process and improvement of EUV mask handling need to be ready. For this analysis we trace mask defects from mask to wafer printing. Acceptable defect type, size and numbers for device manufacturing with EUVL will be shown. Through investigating printing result of natural ML defects, realistic level of natural ML defects will be shown.

Defect printability comparing actinic printing with advanced simulation for EUV masks. The critical dimension CD error on wafers simulated by the DPS is strongly affected by the geometry of the multilayer ML used as an input parameter for simulation. This finding is supported by cross section images of the ML acquired from transmission electron microscopy TEM showing that the diameter of the defect and geometry of the ML are closely related.

Accordingly, the selection of the type of ML geometry seems to be important in the accuracy of defect printability simulation. The DPS software shows good simulation performance in predicting defect printability at 27nm HP node. This is verified by wafer printing and RCWA simulation. EUV actinic blank inspection: from prototype to production. The availability of actinic blank inspection is one of the key milestones for EUV lithography on the way to high volume manufacturing. Placed at the very beginning of the mask manufacturing flow, blank inspection delivers the most critical data set for the judgment of the initial blank quality and final mask performance.

From all actinic metrology tools proposed and discussed over the last years, actinic blank inspection ABI tool is the first one to reach the pre-production status. In this paper we give an overview of EIDEC-Lasertec ABI program, provide a description of the system and share the most recent performance test results of the tool for 16 nm technology node. Resist Outgassing. Relationship between resist related outgassing and witness sample contamination in the NXE outgas qualification using electrons and EUV. Pollentier ; R.

Lokasani ; R. Gronheid ; S.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Hill ; C. Tarrio ; T. EUV photoresists are considered as a potential source of optics contamination, since they introduce irradiation induced outgassing in the EUV vacuum environment. Therefore, before these resists can be used on e. ASML NXE or NXE, they need to be tested in dedicated equipment according to a well-defined procedure, which is based on exposing a witness sample WS in the vicinity of a simultaneously exposed resist as it outgasses.

Such an outgassing test infrastructure is available at many sites, but exposure modes on the witness sample and wafer can be significantly different, which potentially could lead to different test results.

In this investigation, we first explored in more detail the relationship between resist outgassing as measured by RGA Residual Gas Analysis and the carbon growth obtained in the WS test. A good correlation was found by using a timeintegrated and mass-weighted sum of the RGA-measured mass peaks. Next, the impact of the resist exposure mode on the WS contamination result was investigated at imec, where the outgas test setup allows to expose the wafer with EUV irradiation as well as electrons in the same vacuum environment.

It was found that minor differences observed in the WS test results, can be explained by adequate characterization of exposure intensity distribution and dose control.


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The small differences in contamination that were observed could be explained by differences in test procedure, by using the time dependent RGA approach. From the combined work on outgassing measurements and WS contamination testing we have significantly improved our understanding of the relationship between outgassing and contamination processes induced by EUV photons and electrons.


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  7. We have also demonstrated how to compare results obtained at different outgas testing sites, which is important in quantifying the potential risk to EUV device manufacturing posed by resist outgassing. Resist outgassing contamination growth results using both photon and electron exposures. During exposure in an EUV scanner, photoresist and other materials coated on a wafer are known to outgas various species. As a requirement to pattern materials in an ASML NXE scanner, these materials need to be screened for outgassing and possible optics contamination.

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    As part of the testing process, a resist-coated wafer is exposed in a vacuum chamber mimicking the conditions inside an EUV scanner. The resist exposure source can be either EUV photons or electron beam e-beam. The results reported will cover both tools and the measurements of over 80 commercial photoresists. The XPS measurements showed there were about 10 times of Fluorine atoms on the WS which were put to face the exposing position of the resist on the wafer compared to that were put to turn the back on the wafer. The results indicated that the sticking coefficient of PAG anion is about 0.

    Balancing lithographic performance and resist outgassing in EUV resists. Chen ; Anthony Yen. Resolution R , line-width roughness L , and sensitivity S are three key indices describing the performance of a resist. When optimizing a resist to compromise the RLS trade-off in extreme-ultraviolet lithography, outgassing of the resist also needs to be considered, because it will cause deposition of cleanable and non-cleanable contaminants on the surface of the projection optics and reduce the throughput of the exposure tool.

    In this paper, the dependence of outgassing of a resist on its compositions, such as types of photo-acid generator, quencher, and acid liable group as well as their loadings are investigated systematically through a set of specially prepared resist samples. Directions for optimizing resist lithographic performance under the constraint of resist outgassing are proposed. Optics and Metrology. EUVL resist-based aberration metrology.

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    Germain L. Wood ; Bruce W. Since the wavelength for EUVL is an order of magnitude smaller than current optical lithography systems nm , wavelength scaled tolerances on lens manufacturing must be tightened to avoid image distortion and contrast loss as these scale with wavelength. Therefore understanding the aberrations of an EUVL system both in idle and production conditions is paramount.

    This study aims to assess a photoresist based technique for capturing pupil information of EUVL systems that can be implemented during full system use. Various one-dimensional and two-dimensional binary structures were imaged and used for pupil extraction in conjunction with computational modeling and simulations. Results show a stable extracted aberration signature over several measurements.

    Results also show that the method is sensitive to sub-nm levels of aberration change. In-situ optical testing of exposure tools via localized wavefront curvature sensing. We present a new form of optical testing for exposure tools based on measuring localized wavefront curvature.

    In this method, offset monopole illumination is used to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil.

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